Albanian Higher Education Reform: An institutional document analysis
This qualitative research synthesis paper employs an institutional document analysis methodology in place, time and context to crystallize and discover text meaning of the recent higher education reform in Albania. Feedback theory systems, educational institutions theory, institutional change theory, student integration model theory and rational choice theory are the integrated lenses in interpreting and conveying various contingencies and other contextual factors related to Albanian higher education reform. The synthesis found merit in addressing past and present climate in higher education, increased enrollment rates without infrastructure, abuse of educational system, lack of educational institutional autonomy, need to develop higher education institutions with different statuses, low purchasing power of Albanian students and lack of collaborative opportunities which were previously reported to constitute a need for a governmental reform.
Bickman, & J. Brannen, The SAGE handbook of social research methods (pp. 12-26). London: SAGE Publications Ltd.
Bush, P. D. (1987). The theory of institutional change. Journal of Economic Issues, 21(3), 1075-1116.
Denzin, N., & Lincoln, Y. (2011). Introduction. In N. Denzin, & Y. Lincoln, The SAGE handbook of qualitative research (pp. 1-19). Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications, Inc.
Emerson, R. M. (1991). Case processing and interorganizational knowledge: Detecting the "Real Resons" for referrals. Social Problems, 38(2), 198-212. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/800529
Emerson, R. M., Fretz, R. I., & Shaw, L. L. (2011). Writing ethnographic fieldnotes (2nd ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Emerson, R., & Paley, B. (1995). Institutional horizons and complaint-filing. In K. Hawkins, The uses of discretion (pp. 230-248). Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Erickson, F. (2011). A history of qualitative inquiry in social and educational research. In N. Denzin, & Y. Lincoln, The SAGE handbook of qualitative research (pp. 43-60). Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications, Inc.
Gibson, G., Timlin, A., Curran, S., & Wattis, J. (2004). The scope for qualitative methods in research and clinical trials in dementia. Age and Ageing, 33, 422-426.
Gjonca, A., Aliaj, B., Barbullushi, M., Bozo, D., Civici, A., Demo, E., . . . Rapti, E. (2014). Raporti perfundimtar per reformimin e arsimit te larte dhe kerkimit shkencor. Tirane: Albanian Ministry of Education. Retrieved from http://www.kalksh.org/raporte-te-kerkimeve/
Hall, H. (1908). Studies in english official historical documents. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hammersley, M. (2012). What is qualitative research? London: Bloomsbury Academic.
Hossler, D., Ziskin, M., Gross, J. P., Kim, S., & Cekic, O. (2009). Student aid and its role in encouraging persistence. In J. Smart, Higher education: Handbook of theory and research (Vol. 24, pp. 389-425). Dordrecht: Springer Science + Business Media B.V.
Kvale, S. (1996). The 1,000-Page Question. Qualitative Inquiry, 2(3), 275-284.
LeCompte, M. D., & Preissle, J. (1994). Qualitative research; What it Is, what it isn't, and how it's done. In B. Thompson, Advances in social science methodology (Vol. 3, pp. 141-163). Bingley: Emeral Group Publishing Limited.
Litke, R. (1975). What's wrong with closing minds? In J. R. Meyer, B. Burnham, & J. Cholvat, Values education: theory/practice/oroblems/orospects (pp. 87-93). Ontario: Wilfrid Laurier University Press.
Maanen, J. V. (2011). Tales of the field on writing ethnography. Chicago; London: The University of Chicago Press.
Marwick, C. (1964, May). An historical study of paper document restoration methods. Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America.
Meyer, J. R., Burnham, B., & Cholvat, J. (1975). Values education: theory/practice/problems/prospects. Ontario: Wilfrid Laurier University Press.
Miller, G. (1997). Contextualizing texts: Studying organiztaional texts. In G. Miller, & R. Dingwall, Context and method in qualitative research (pp. 77-91). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, Inc. .
Notterman, J. M., & Drewry, H. N. (1993). Psychology and education: Parallel and interactive appraoches. New York: Plenum Press.
Olson, D. (2003). Psychological theory and educational reform. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Ormrod, J. E. (1990). Human learning: theories, principles and educational applications. Columbus: Merrill Publishing Company.
Pathak, V., Jena, B., & Kalra, S. (2013). Qualitative research. Perspectives in clinical research, 4(3), 192. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3757586/?tool=pmcentrez
Patton, M. Q. (2002). Qualitative research and evaluation methods (3 ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, Inc.
Rokeach, M. (1975). Toward a philosophy of value education. In J. R. Meyer, B. Burnham, & J. Cholvat, Values education: Theory, practice, problems, prospects (pp. 117-126). Ontario: Wilfrid Laurier University Press.
Sandelowski, M. (2004). Qualitative research. In M. S. Lewis-Beck, A. Bryman, & T. F. Liao, The Sage encyclopedia of social science research methods. Thousands Oaks: SAGE.
Smith, D. E. (1984). Textually mediated social organizations. International social science journal, 39(9), 59-75.
Sumathipala, A., Siribaddana, S., & Silva, N. D. (2003). Qualitative research. Ceylon medical journal, 48(4), 136-139.
Thagard, P. (2002). Coherence in thought and action. Cambridge: Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Tinto, V. (1993). Leaving college: Rethinking the causes and cures of student attrition. Chicago; London: The University of Chicago Press.
Tinto, V. (2004). Student retention and graduation: Facing the truth, living with the consequences. Washington: The Pell Institute for the Study of Opportunity in Higher Education.