Non-Traditional Paths of Chinese Students towards Their Baccalaureate Degree: New Models of Transfer College Credit Programs in China

  • Jiayi Hu

Abstract

The concept of “Transfer College Credit Programs (TCCP)” has spread to the far corners of the Earth.  Transfer college credit programs are of two types; 1) high school students around the globe planning on attending American colleges or universities enroll in college-level courses while still in high school in their home country and earn American college credits which are later transferred to their American institutions, and 2) current enrolled international undergraduate students take courses offered during summer break in their home countries. This study investigates the the popularity of these programs in China, and illustrates a typology of transfer college credit programs offered in China.

References

Adelman, C. (1998). The kiss of death? An alternative view of college remediation. National Crosstalk, 6(3), 11.
Adelman, C. (1999). Answers in the tool box: Academic intensity, attendance patterns, and bachelor’s degree attainment. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement.
Adelman, C. (2002). The relationship between urbanicity and educational outcomes. In W. G. Tierney & L. S. Hagedorn (Eds.), Increasing access to college: Extending possibilities for all students (pp. 35–63). Albany: State University of New York Press.
Andrews, H. A. (2001). The dual-credit phenomenon! Challenging secondary school
students across 50 states. Stillwater, OK: New Forums Press.
AP Data 2012. College Board, 2013. URL: http://research.collegeboard.org/programs/ap/data/participation/2012
Association of American Colleges and Universities (2002). Greater expectations: A new vision for learning as a nation goes to college. Washington, DC. Also at www.greaterexpectations.org.
Association of American Colleges and Universities (AACU). (2012). General Education in an Age of Student Mobility. URL: http://www.aacu.org/transfer/student_mobility/
Barnes, T. L, & Robinson, L. (1999). Bachelor degree students attending community colleges: A Missouri look at post-baccalaureate reverse transfers. In B.K. Townsend (Ed.), Understanding the impact of reserve transfer students on community colleges (New Directions for Community Colleges, pp. 57-66). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Inc.
Bettinger, E., & Long, T. L. (2005). Help or hinder? Adjunct professors and student outcomes. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University.
Boswell, K. (2001). State policy and postsecondary enrollment options: Creating seamless systems. New Directions for Community Colleges, 29(1), 7-14.
Cabrera, A. F., & La Nasa, S. M. (2000). Understanding the college choice of disadvantaged students. In A. F. Cabrera & S. M. La Nasa (Eds.), New directions for institutional research, (pp. 1-12). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Chang, F. (1973). Responding to Chinese-American children. San Francisco: Far West Laboratory for Educational Research and Development. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 175 979).
China Education Daily. (2011 & 2012 April).
China Education Yearbook. (2010 & 2011& 2012).
Eccles, J. S., & Harold, R. D. (1996). Family involvement in children’s and adolescents’ schooling. In A. Booth & J. F. Dunn (Eds.), Family school links: How do they affect educational outcomes? (pp. 3–34). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Gravetter, J. F. & Wallnau, J. B. (2010). Essentials of Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences (Eight Edition). Belmont, CA.
Grolnick, W. S., Benjet, C., Kurowski, C. O., & Apostoleris, N. H. (1997). Predictors of parent involvement in children’s schooling. Journal of Educational Psychology, 89, 538–548.
Hagedorn, L.S, & Castro, C.R. (2000). Spending the summer at a California Community College. Academic Exchange Quarterly (2), 23-32.
Hossler, D., Schmit, J., & Vesper, N. (1999). Going to college: How social, economic, and educational factors influence the decisions students make. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Inside Higher Ed. (2010).
Institute of International Education. 2010. Open doors 2010: International students in the United States. Washington, DC: Author.
Institute of International Education. 2011. Open doors 2011: International students in the United States. Washington, DC: Author.
Institute of International Education. 2012. Open doors 2011: International students in the United States. Washington, DC: Author.
International Baccalaureate. 2013. URL: http://www.ibo.org/programmes/
International Baccalaureate Organization [IBO]. 2013. URL: http://www.ibo.org/programmes/pd/
IB World School Statistics. (2013, Jan). International Baccalaureate Organization.
Karp, M. M., Bailey, T., Hughes, K., & Fermin, B. (2004). State dual enrollment policies: Addressing access and quality. New York, NY: Community College Research Center, Teacher’s College, Columbia University
Karp, M. M. & Hughes, K. L. (2008). Dual enrollment can benefit a broad range of students. Techniques: Connecting Education and Careers, 83(7), 14-17.
Kleiner, B., and Lewis, L. (2005). Dual enrollment of high school students at postsecondary institutions: 2002–03 (NCES 2005–008). U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics.
Lerner, J. B. & Brand, B. (2006). The college ladder: Linking secondary and postsecondary education for success for all students. Washington: American Youth Policy Forum.
Levine, A., & Cureton, J. (1998). Generation without a name. In When hope and fear collide: A portrait of today’s student (pp. 1-17). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Inc.
McMurhrie, B. & Farrar, L. (2013). Chinese Summer Schools Sell Quick American Credits. The Chronicle of Higher Education, 2013, Jan.
Ministry of Education of People’s Republic of China. (2011& 2012). URL: http://www.moe.edu.cn/publicfiles/business/htmlfiles/moe/moe_2792/index.html
Nancy Qian. (2009). Quantity-quality and the One Child Policy: the only-child disadvantage in school enrollment in rural China. National Bureau of Economic Research.
National Center for Education Statistic [NCES]. (2013, March).Dual Enrollment Programs and Courses for High School Students at Postsecondary Institutions: 2010–11. Institute of Education Sciences
Number of GAC Centers in China on the Rise (2008, Spring). ACT’s Activity Publication, 46 (2). Aslo See, URL: http://www.act.org/activity/spring2008/gaccenters.html
Office of Vocational and Adult Education. (2007). Accelerating Student Success Through Credit-Based Transition Programs, U.S. Department of Education.
Orr, M. T. (2002). Dual enrollment: Developments, trends and impacts. Presentation to the Community College Research Center, Teachers College, Columbia University. New York, NY. January 25.
Pascarella, T. E. & Terenzini, T. P. (2005). How college affects students: a third decade of research (Chapter 1 pp. 1–14).. Jossey-Bass Higher & Adult Education, San Francisco, CA.
Palmer, J.C. (2001). What do we know about student transfer? An overview. In General education in an age of student mobility: An invitation to discuss systemic curricular planning. Washington, DC: Association of American Colleges and Universities. Also at www.aacu.org/transfer/student_mobility.
Perna, L. W. (2002). Precollege outreach programs: Characteristics of programs serving historically underrepresented groups of students. Journal of College Student Development, 43, 64–83.
Program Overview (2011). ACT Education Solutions, Limited.
Richardson, T. (2007) "Dual-credit: “A key to the future”", On the Horizon, 15(4), pp.239 – 244
Shanghai Education Department. (2012).
Stampen, J. O., & Fenske, R. H. (1988). The impact of financial aid on ethnic minorities. The Review of Higher Education, 11, 337–353.
Stevenson, H. W. (1992, December). Learning from Asian schools. Scientific Americans, 70-76.
Stevenson, H. W., & Lee, S. Y. (1990). Contexts of achievement: A study of American, Chinese, and Japanese children. Monograph of the Society for Research in Child Development, 55, (1-2, Serial No. 221).
Therese, H., Li, L. & Zhu, W. X. (2005, Sept). The effect of China’s One-Child Family Policy after 25. The New England Journal of Medicine.
The Chronicle of Higher Education. (2010 & 2012/03).
Waits, T., Setzer, J. C., & Lewis, L. (2005). Dual credit and exam-based courses in U.S. public high schools. (NCES Publication No. 2005-009). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics.
Ward, C. & Kennedy, A. (2001). Coping with cross-cultural transition. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 32, 636-642.
Published
2015-05-18
How to Cite
HU, Jiayi. Non-Traditional Paths of Chinese Students towards Their Baccalaureate Degree: New Models of Transfer College Credit Programs in China. Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies in Education, [S.l.], v. 2, n. 1, may 2015. ISSN 2166-2681. Available at: <http://isejournal.org/index.php/jise/article/view/32>. Date accessed: 25 may 2019.