Effects of Family and School on Academic Achievement of Korean High School Students

  • In Seog Seo Kongju National University
  • Kioh Kim University of Louisiana at Monroe


Vocational high schools in South Korea have been evaluated to supply skilled labor forces needed for rapid economic development. However, the degree of academic achievement of vocational high school students is evaluated noticeably low in South Korea. This study examines the influence of family and school on vocational high school students’ academic achievement in South Korea. A nationally representative sample from the Korean Education and Employment Panel Survey (KEEP) was analyzed. Results show that variables related to parents did not influence Korean vocational high school students’ academic achievement.  School facility did not influence on the general subject academic achievement, but that influenced the vocational subject academic achievement of Korean students.  Two school related variables - teacher ability and relationship were significant for academic achievement.

Author Biographies

In Seog Seo, Kongju National University
Kioh Kim, University of Louisiana at Monroe
Assistant Professor


Chae, C., & Chung, J. (2009). Pre-employment vocational education and training in Korea. Social Protection Unit of the World Bank. Washington D.C., www.worldbank.org/sp.

Chiu, M. M., & Khoo, L. (2005). Effects of resources, inequality, and privilege bias on achievement: Country, school, and student level analyses. American Educational Research Journal, 42(4), 575–603.

Clotfelter, C., Ladd, H., & Vigdor, J. (2007). How and why do credentials matter for student achievement (NBER, Working Paper #12828). Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.

Coleman, J. S., Campbell, E. Q., Hobson, C. J., McPartland, J., Mood, A. M., Weindeld, F. D., & York, R. L.(1966). Equality of educational achievement. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.

Connell, J. P., & Wellborn, J. G. (1991). Competence, autonomy, and relatedness: A motivational analysis of self-system processes. In M. R. Gunnar & L. A. Sroufe (Eds.).Self- processes and development: The Minnesota symposia on child development, 23, 43-78. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Corcoran, M. (1995). Rags to rags: Poverty and mobility in the United States. Annual Review of Sociology, 21, 237–267.

Darling-Hammond, L. (1995). Inequality and access to knowledge. In Banks, J. A. (Ed.).Handbook of research on multicultural education, 465–483. New York, NY: Macmillan.

DePlanty, J., Coulter-Kern, R., & Duchane, K. A., (2007). Perceptions of parent involvementin academic achievement.Journal of Educational Research, 100(6), 361-368.

Durán-Narucki, V. (2008). School building condition, school attendance, and academic achievement in New York City public schools: A mediation model. Journal of Environmental Psychology,28(3), 278–286.

El Nokali, N. E., Bachman H. J., & Votruba-Drzal E. (2010). Parent involvement and children’s academic and social development in elementary school. Child Development, 81(3), 988–1005.

Evans, G. W., Yoo, M. J., & Sipple, J. (2010). The ecological context of student achievement: School building quality effects are exacerbated by high levels of student mobility. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 30(2), 239–244.

Flouri, E. (2006). Parental interest in children’s education, children’s self-esteem and locus of control, and later educational attainment: Twenty-six year follow-up of the 1970 British Birth Cohort. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 76(1), 41–55.

Gray, K. (1997). The gatekeepers. Techniques (January), 24-27.

Hanushek, E. A. (1971). Teacher characteristics and gains in student achievement: Estimation using micro data. American Economic Review 61(2), 280–288.

Hanushek, E. A. (1997). Assessing the effects of school resources on student performance: An update.Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 19(2), 141–164.

Hanushek, E. A., & Rivkin, S. G.( 2010). Using value-added measures of teacher quality. American Economic Review, 100(2), 267–271.

Hooper, D., Coughlan, J., & Mullen, M. R. (2008).Structural equation modeling: guidelines for determining model fit. Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods. 6(1), 53 - 60, available online at www.ejbrm.com.

Kane, T. J., Taylor, E. S., Tyler, J. H., & Wooten, A. L. (2010). Identifying effective classroom practices using student achievement data. The Journal of Human Resources, 46(3), 587-613.

Kim, H. (2007). Exploring the effects of family background, school education, and private tutoring on high school students' achievement in Korea. The Journal of Educational Administration, 25(4), 485-508. (in Korean language).

Kim, M., Lavonen, J., & Ogawa, M. (2009). Experts’ opinions on the high achievement of scientific literacy in PISA 2003: A comparative study in Finland and Korea. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science & Technology Education, 5(4), 379-393.

Kim, Y. (2004). Factors predicting Korean vocational high school teachers’ attitudes toward school change. Ph.D Dissertation of Ohio State University.
Konstantopoulos, S., & Chung, V. (2011). Teacher effects on minority and disadvantaged students’ grade 4 achievement. The Journal of Educational Research, 104(2), 73–86.

Korea Research Institute for Vocational Education and Training (2000). Future policy measures to improve vocational high school education in Korea. Seoul.

Kuczera, M., Kis, V., & Wurzburg, G. (2009). Learning for jobs OECD reviews of vocational education and training; Korea. OECD.

Kwak, S. (2006). Determinants of academic achievement on academic high school students. Korean Journal of Sociology of Education,16(2), 1-29. (in Korean language).

Marchant, G. J., Paulson, S. E., & Rothlisberg, B. A. (2001). Relations of middle school students’ perceptions of family and school contexts with academic achievement. Psychology in the Schools, 38(6), 505-519.

Mueller, C. W. & Parcel, T. L. (1981).Measures of socioeconomic status: alternatives and recommendations. Child Development, 52(1), 13-30.

Milanowski, A. (2004). The relationship between teacher performance evaluation scores and student achievement: Evidence from Cincinnati. Peabody Journal of Education, 79(4), 33–53.

Ministry of Education, Science and Technology & Korean Research Institute for Vocational Education and Training (2011).Current state of vocational high schools. (in Korean language)

Murnane, R. J., & Phillips, B. R. (1981). What do effective teachers of inner-city children have in common? Social Science Research, 10(1), 83–100.

Ning H.K., & Downing, Kevin (2010).Connections between learning experience, study behaviour and academicperformance: A longitudinal study. Educational Research, 52(4), 457–468.

Nye, B., Konstantopoulos, S., & Hedges, L. V. (2004). How large are teacher effects? Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 26(3), 237–257.

O’Connor, E., & McCartney, K. (2007). Examining teacher-child relationships and achievement as part of an ecological model of development. American Educational Research Journal, 44(2), 340–369.

Park, D., Jung, C., & Kim, J. (2009). The Method to Improve the Basic Learning Ability of Vocational High School Students. Korean Research Institute for Vocational Education and Training (KRIVET).

Park, S., Byun, S., & Kim, K. (2011). Parental involvement and students’ cognitive outcomes in Korea: Focusing on private tutoring. Sociology of Education, 84(1), 3–22.

Parker, J. G., & Asher, S. R. (1987). Peer relations and later personal adjustment: Are low-accepted children at risk? Psychological Bulletin, 102(3), 357-389.

Pintrich, P.R., & D.H. Schunk. (2002). Motivation in education: Theory, research, and applications (2nd ed.). New York: Prentice Hall.

Pucel, D. J. (2001). Beyond vocational education: Career majors, tech-prep, schools within schools, magnet schools & academies. Larchmont, NY: Eye on Education.

Roorda, D. L., Koomen, H. M. Y., Spilt, J. L., & Oort, F. J. (2011). The influence of affective teacher student relationships on students' school engagement and achievement: A meta-analytic approach.Review of Educational Research, 81(4), 493-529.

Seoul Metropolitan Government (2009). 2008 Seoul Survey(in Korean). Seoul, Seoul Metropolitan Government.

Sheldon, S. B. (2002). Parents’ social networks and beliefs as predictors of parent involvement. Elementary School Journal, 102(4), 301–316.

Skinner, E. A., & Belmont, M. J. (1993). Motivation in the classroom: Reciprocal effects of teacher behavior and student engagement across the school year. Journal of Educational Psychology, 85(4), 571–581.

Skinner, E. A., Wellborn, J. G., & Connell, J. P. (1990). What it takes to do well in school and whether I’ve got it: A process model of perceived control and children’s engagement and achievement in school. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82(1), 22–32.

Tchoshanov, M. A. (2011). Relationship between teacher knowledge of concepts and connections, teaching practice, and student achievement in middle grades mathematics. Educational Studies in Mathematics. 76(2), 141-164.

Yim, I. (2010). ‘Monthly payment for private tutoring per household in Seoul, 580,000 Won. (in Korean) Seoul Daily, March 9, p. 5.

Wentzel, K. R. (1998). Social relationships and motivation in middle school: The role of parents, teachers, and peers. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90(2), 202–209.

Wei, Y., Clifton, R. A., & Roberts, L. W. (2012). School resources and the academic achievement of Canadian students. Alberta Journal of Educational Research, 57(4), 460-478.

Woolley, Michael E., Kol, Kelli L., & Bowen, Gary L. (2009). The social context of school success for Latino middle school students: Direct and indirect influences of teachers, family, and friends. Journal of Early Adolescence, 29(1), 43-70.
How to Cite
SEO, In Seog; KIM, Kioh. Effects of Family and School on Academic Achievement of Korean High School Students. Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies in Education, [S.l.], v. 2, n. 2, may 2015. ISSN 2166-2681. Available at: <https://isejournal.org/index.php/jise/article/view/35>. Date accessed: 17 jan. 2021.


Korean Vocational high school; Academic achievement; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Parental involvement; Teacher ability; Teacher relationship